Kitt Peak Nightly Observing Program
Splendors of the Universe on YOUR Night!
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The Big Dipper (also known as the Plough) is an asterism consisting of the seven brightest stars of the constellation Ursa Major. Four define a “bowl” or “body” and three define a “handle” or “head”. It is recognized as a distinct grouping in many cultures. The North Star (Polaris), the current northern pole star and the tip of the handle of the Little Dipper, can be located by extending an imaginary line from Big Dipper star Merak (β) through Dubhe (α). This makes it useful in celestial navigation.
Constellation Ursa Minor is colloquially known in the US as the Little Dipper, because its seven brightest stars seem to form the shape of a dipper (ladle or scoop). The star at the end of the dipper handle is Polaris, the North Star. Polaris can also be found by following a line through two stars in Ursa Major—Alpha and Beta Ursae Majoris—that form the end of the ‘bowl’ of the Big Dipper, for 30 degrees (three upright fists at arms’ length) across the night sky.
Leo is a fairly well known constellation, because the plane of the Solar System runs through it. Such constellations are called Zodiac Constellations. Leo has some notable, bright stars, in it to boot. The brightest of these, Regulus is at the bottom of a series of stars arrayed in the form of a sickle, or a backwards question mark. This constellation does look more or less like the side profile of a lion lying on the ground, with its head up.
M17 Swan Nebula
M17, also known as the “Swan Nebula,” or the “Omega Nebula” is a vast cloud of gas—mostly hydrogen, in which clumps of gas are contracting to make new stars. The nebula is 15 light-years across, and 5,500 light-years away.
M101 Pinwheel Galaxy
M101: The “Pinwheel Galaxy”. A Milky Way carbon copy, seen face-on. There are about a trillion here, all in a swirling disk 21 million lightyears way.
M104 Sombrero Galaxy
M104: A spiral galaxy like the Milky Way, nicknamed the “Sombrero Galaxy” because the lane of dust in the disk looks like the brim of such a hat. It is about 50,000 lightyears across and about 29 million lightyears away.
M51 Whirlpool Galaxy
M51, the Whirlpool Galaxy, gets its name from its bright and prominent spiral arms. It lies at a distance of 23 million light-years away. It also has a smaller, companion galaxy (NGC 5195). The two galaxies are one of the best examples of interacting galaxies.
M65 (in Leo Triplet)
M65 is a spiral galaxy about 35 million light-years away. With a diameter of only 60,000 light-years, It is smaller than the Milky Way. It is one of three galaxies in a small group called the Leo Triplet.
M66 (in Leo Triplet)
M66 is a spiral galaxy, and one of three galaxies in a trio of galaxies called the Leo Triplet. M66 is a stones throw (180,000 light-years) from M65.
M81 Bode’s Galaxy
M81 is a small spiral galaxy, 12 million lightyears away. It is a disk of 50 billion solar masses, only a stone’s throw (150,000 lightyears) from M82.
M82 Cigar Galaxy
M82, the “Cigar Galaxy” is an edge-on spiral galaxy, 12 million light-years away, and perhaps 37,000 light-years across. There are vast gas clouds in this galaxy, where stars are being born at an incredible rate.
NGC 3628 (in Leo Triplet)
NGC 3628, also known as Sarah’s Galaxy. Is an unbarred spiral galaxy about 35 million light-years away in the constellation Leo. It was discovered by William Herschel in 1784. It has an approximately 300,000 light-years long tidal tail. NGC 3628 along with M65 and M66 form the famous Leo Triplet.
M13 Hercules Globular
M13, the “Great Globular Cluster in Hercules” was first discovered by Edmund Halley in 1714, and later catalogued by Charles Messier in 1764. It contains 300,000 stars, and is 22,000 light-years away. Light would need over a century to traverse its diameter.
M3 is a globular cluster with a half of a million stars. It orbits the core of our Milky Way Galaxy almost perpendicular to the galactic disk. It is currently 33,900 light-years away, and approaching our Solar System at 100 miles per second.
M4 is a globular star cluster located near the bright, orange star Antares, in the constellation Scorpius. It is on the small side, as globular clusters go—only 70-75 light-years across. It is about 7,200 light-years away, which makes it possibly the closest globular cluster to our solar system.
M5 is a bright, large globular cluster, 25,000 light-years away. It is 13 billion years old, 165 light-years in diameter, and may contain as many as half of a million stars.
That clumpy band of light is evidence that we live in a disk-shaped galaxy. Its pale glow is light from about 200 billion suns!
Human technology! There are almost 500 of these in Low Earth Orbit (we can’t see the higher ones). We see these little “moving stars” because they reflect sunlight.
Tonight we saw the International Space Station!
The Green Flash
What we call “The Green Flash” is not so much a flash as a flicker of green color, seen on the top of the sun as it sets (or rises). This rare event needs just the right atmospheric conditions.
Zodiacal light is the faint, smooth glow marking the ecliptic (the plane of the solar system). It is sunlight scattered off of gas and dust that orbits the Sun. This is a rare sight, only visible under very dark skies, and best viewed early in the year when the Ecliptic is higher above the horizon.
M11 Wild Duck Cluster
M11 is an open star cluster also known as the “Wild Duck Cluster,” due to its purported prominant V-shape, reminiscent of a flock of wild ducks in flight. This open cluster is 20 light-years in diameter and 6,200 light-years away.
M57 Ring Nebula
M57: The Ring Nebula. This remnant of a dead star looks exactly as it’s name says – a ring or doughnut shape cloud of gas. The nebula is about 2.6 lightyears across and lies about 2,300 lightyears away.
NGC 3242 Ghost of Jupiter
NGC 3242: The “Ghost of Jupiter.” A shroud of gas puffed off by a dying star, 1,400 lightyears away. The gas is illuminated by the collapsed, hot, blue core (a white dwarf). Did it look blue to you?
NGC 6543 Cat’s Eye Nebula
NGC 6543: The “Cat’s Eye Nebula.” Like all planetary nebulae, this is a roughly spherical cloud cast off by a dying star. Did it look blue in our telescope?
Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System, a “gas giant” 11 Earth-diameters across. Its atmosphere contains the Great Red Spot, a long-lived storm 2-3 times the size of the Earth. The 4 large Galilean satellites and at least 63 smaller moons orbit Jupiter.
Algieba (γ Leo)
Algieba (γ Leonis) is a binary star in the mane of Leo, the lion. These two golden-yellow giant stars are about 23 and 10 times the diameter of the Sun, and are about 130 light-years away. Their orbital period is over 500 years. In 2009, a giant planet was found orbiting one of these stars.
Double Double (ε Lyr)
The Double-Double (ε Lyrae) looks like two stars in binoculars, but a good telescope shows that both of these two are themselves binaries. However, there may be as many as ten stars in this system! The distant pairs are about 0.16 light-year apart and take about half a million years to orbit one another. The Double-Double is about 160 light-years from Earth.
Iota (ι) Cancri
Iota (ι) Cancri is a binary star in the constellation Cancer, the crab. The brighter star is a pale yellow giant, and the fainter star is smaller and bluish-white. This pair is about 300 light-years away and the stars are almost 3000 astronomical units apart.
Izar (description forthcoming)
Mizar & Alcor
In the handle of the Big Dipper, Mizar & Alcor (ζ & 80 Ursae Majoris) or the “Horse & Rider” form a naked-eye double star. They are traveling through space together about 80 light-years away from us, separated by about a light-year. However, it is unknown if they are actually gravitationally bound to each other. A telescope splits Mizar itself into two stars, but these both are again doubles, bringing the total in this system to six.
Your Telescope Operator and Guide. Thank you for joining me this evening! See you soon!!
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Nightly Observing Program. Most of the above images were taken as
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