Kitt Peak Nightly Observing Program
Splendors of the Universe on YOUR Night!
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Aquarius, the water-carrier is said to resemble a figure carrying a jug of water. This aquatic constellation is one of the zodiac constellations, so the planets, Sun, and Moon move across its boundaries. Aquarius and other nearby aquatic-themed constellations make up a region of the sky known as “the Sea”.
This constellation is named for the centaur—half-man half-horse creature. It is a large constellation only partially visible from Northern latitudes. It’s brightest star, Alpha Centauri, only visible from Southern latitudes, is not only one of the brightest stars in the sky, but it is the closest star system to our own Solar System—our stellar neighbor! This constellation also contains Omega Centauri, a globular star cluster home to a whopping 10 million stars.
Lacerta, the lizard, is a faint constellation. As such, it was not established as a constellation until it was created by Johannes Hevelius in 1687. It’s faint zig-zag shape is a challenge to pick out in the sky. Though it is faint, it lies partially in the Milky Way, so is densely populated with stars on one side.
Lyra is a small, but notable constellation. It is host to Vega—the fifth brightest star in the sky (or sixth, counting the Sun). Not far from Vega is Messier object 57—the Ring Nebula, which is perhaps the best known planetary nebula in our sky. Lyra’s name is Greek for lyre—a kind of harp.
M31 Andromeda Galaxy
The Andromeda Galaxy is our nearest major galactic neighbor. It is a spiral galaxy 2,500,000 light-years away, and has a diameter of 220,000 light-years. This galaxy contains as much material as 1.5 trillion suns.
M13 Hercules Globular
M13, the “Great Globular Cluster in Hercules” was first discovered by Edmund Halley in 1714, and later catalogued by Charles Messier in 1764. It contains 300,000 stars, and is 22,000 light-years away. Light would need over a century to traverse its diameter.
That clumpy band of light is evidence that we live in a disk-shaped galaxy. Its pale glow is light from about 200 billion suns!
Messier 52 is an open star cluster, which was discovered in 1774 by Charles Messier. The density near the center is about 3 stars per cubic parsec. The cluster is only 35 million years old—very young for stars. The distance of this cluster from our Solar System is not very well known; estimates range between 3,000 and 7,000 light-years. M52 can be seen as a nebulous patch in a good pair of binoculars or a small telescope. In larger telescopes, it appears as a fine, rich, compressed cluster of faint stars, often described as of fan or “V” shape. M52 can be found by extending the line from Alpha over Beta Cassiopeiae by 6 1/2 degrees to the NW to 5th mag 4 Cassiopeiae; M52 is roughly 1 degree south and slightly west of this star.
M57 Ring Nebula
M57: The Ring Nebula. This remnant of a dead star looks exactly as it’s name says – a ring or doughnut shape cloud of gas. The nebula is about 2.6 lightyears across and lies about 2,300 lightyears away.
NGC 7009 The Saturn Nebula
NGC 7009 is planetary nebula in Aquarius with a greenish-yellowish hue. It was formed by a low-mass star ejecting its outer layers into space. The central star is now a tiny white dwarf star with a surface temperature of 55,000 K, ionizing the expelled outer layers with its UV radiation. The green color is caused by double-ionized oxygen. It was named “The Saturn Nebula” by Lord Rosse in the 1840s, when telescopes had improved to the point that its Saturn-like shape could be discerned.
The same side of the Moon always faces Earth because the lunar periods of rotation and revolution are the same. The surface of the moon is covered with impact craters and lava-filled basins. The Moon is about a fourth of Earth’s diameter and is about 30 Earth-diameters away.
Double Double (ε Lyr)
The Double-Double (ε Lyrae) looks like two stars in binoculars, but a good telescope shows that both of these two are themselves binaries. However, there may be as many as ten stars in this system! The distant pairs are about 0.16 light-year apart and take about half a million years to orbit one another. The Double-Double is about 160 light-years from Earth.
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Nightly Observing Program. Most of the above images were taken as
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