Kitt Peak Nightly Observing Program
Splendors of the Universe on YOUR Night!
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Constellation Ursa Minor is colloquially known in the US as the Little Dipper, because its seven brightest stars seem to form the shape of a dipper (ladle or scoop). The star at the end of the dipper handle is Polaris, the North Star. Polaris can also be found by following a line through two stars in Ursa Major—Alpha and Beta Ursae Majoris—that form the end of the ‘bowl’ of the Big Dipper, for 30 degrees (three upright fists at arms’ length) across the night sky.
Cassiopeia is widely recognized by its characteristic W shape, though it may look like an M, a 3, or a Σ depending on its orientation in the sky, and your position on Earth. However it’s oriented, once you’ve come to know its distinctive zig-zag pattern, you’ll spot it with ease. The plane of the Milky Way runs right through Cassiopeia, so it’s full of deep sky objects—in particular, a lot of open star clusters. Cassiopeia is named for the queen form Greek mythology who angered the sea god Poseidon when she boasted that her daughter Andromeda was more beautiful than his sea nymphs.
Cygnus is a large constellation, prominent in the Northern Hemisphere. Its name comes from the Greek for “Swan” and can be imagined as a giant, celestial swan, flying overhead, with its wings fully extended. The brightest star in Cygnus is Deneb, which is one of the brightest stars in the sky, and a whopping 800 lightyears away! Deneb is one point of an asterism called the Summer Triangle—three very bright stars that form a large triangle shape prominent in the Northern hemisphere summer skies.
M42 The Orion Nebula
M42, the Orion Nebula is a region of star formation about 1,300 light-years away—the closest to our Solar System. It is roughly 30 light-years across, and contains enough material to make 2,000 stars the size of our sun.
M103 is one of many open star clusters in the constellation Cassiopeia. At a distance of about 10,000 lightyears, this is one of the most distant open star clusters known. The apparent brightest star in the cluster is not actually a member of the cluster at all, but actually a foreground star. The brightest star in the cluster is a red giant star; it has a redish orange tinge.
The same side of the Moon always faces Earth because the lunar periods of rotation and revolution are the same. The surface of the moon is covered with impact craters and lava-filled basins. The Moon is about a fourth of Earth’s diameter and is about 30 Earth-diameters away.
Mesarthim (γ Arietis)
Mesarthim is one of the brighter stars making up the constellation Aries—the ram. It is actually a pair of stars—a double star—204 light-years away. It’s component stars are of similar brightness and both white. They are separated by about 500 times the distance between the Earth and the Sun, and take approximately 5,000 years to orbit each other. The apparent (slightly) dimmer star, Gamma-1, is actually the hotter and more luminous star. Much of its light is ultraviolet, and invisible to human eyes. The apparent (slightly) brighter star, Gamma-2, has some interesting characteristics that suggest not only that it may be evolving from a dwarf to a subgiant, but also that it is highly magnetized.
The web page for the program in which you just participated is at
Nightly Observing Program. Most of the above images were taken as
the Overnight Telescope Observing Program. For more information on this unique experience please visit Overnight Telescope Observing Program.
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