Kitt Peak Nightly Observing Program
Splendors of the Universe on YOUR Night!
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Constellation Ursa Minor is colloquially known in the US as the Little Dipper, because its seven brightest stars seem to form the shape of a dipper (ladle or scoop). The star at the end of the dipper handle is Polaris, the North Star. Polaris can also be found by following a line through two stars in Ursa Major—Alpha and Beta Ursae Majoris—that form the end of the ‘bowl’ of the Big Dipper, for 30 degrees (three upright fists at arms’ length) across the night sky.
M42 The Orion Nebula
M42, the Orion Nebula is a region of star formation about 1,300 light-years away—the closest to our Solar System. It is roughly 30 light-years across, and contains enough material to make 2,000 stars the size of our sun.
M15 is a distant globular cluster, 33,000 light-years away. It has 100,000 stars, and is one of the oldest known globular clusters, having formed about 12 billion years ago.
Quick streaks of light in the sky called meteors, shooting stars, or falling stars are not stars at all: they are small bits of rock or iron that heat up, glow, and vaporize upon entering the Earth’s atmosphere. When the Earth encounters a clump of many of these particles, we see a meteor shower lasting hours or days.
That clumpy band of light is evidence that we live in a disk-shaped galaxy. Its pale glow is light from about 200 billion suns!
NGC 2169 The 37 Cluster
NGC 2169 is an open star cluster in the constellation Orion. It was discovered by Giovanni Batista Hodierna before 1654 and discovered by William Herschel on October 15, 1784. NGC 2169 is at a distance of about 3,600 light-years away from Earth. It is nicknamed The 37 Cluster due to its striking resemblance to the numerals 37.
M1 Crab Nebula
M1: The Crab Nebula. The explosion that created this nebula was seen by Chinese astronomers in 1054 A.D. This explosion was bright enough to be seen in the daytime for almost a month. The nebula is 11 lightyears in diameter and is expanding at the rate of 1,500 km per second.
NGC 7662 Blue Snowball
NGC 7662: A planetary nebula nicknamed the “Blue Snowball.” It is a round cloud thrown off by a dying star, expanded to 1.6 lightyears in diameter. The expanding hot gas would have fried any planets orbiting the star.
Hind’s Crimson Star (R Lep)
Hind’s Crimson Star (R Leporis), contains lots of carbon in its outer atmosphere, which dims and reddens its starlight. Changing amounts of carbon cause the star to vary in color and brightness, sometimes making it one of the reddest stars in the sky.
Mesarthim (γ Arietis)
Mesarthim is one of the brighter stars making up the constellation Aries—the ram. It is actually a pair of stars—a double star—204 light-years away. It’s component stars are of similar brightness and both white. They are separated by about 500 times the distance between the Earth and the Sun, and take approximately 5,000 years to orbit each other. The apparent (slightly) dimmer star, Gamma-1, is actually the hotter and more luminous star. Much of its light is ultraviolet, and invisible to human eyes. The apparent (slightly) brighter star, Gamma-2, has some interesting characteristics that suggest not only that it may be evolving from a dwarf to a subgiant, but also that it is highly magnetized.
Rigel (β Ori)
Rigel (β Orionis) is the brightest star in the constellation Orion, and the seventh brightest star in the night sky, with a visual magnitude of 0.13. Rigel is a triple star system. The primary star (Rigel A) is a blue-white supergiant around 120,000 times as luminous as the Sun. It has exhausted its core hydrogen and swollen out to 79 times the Sun’s radius. An Alpha Cygni variable, it pulsates periodically. Visible in small telescopes and 500 times fainter than Rigel A, Rigel B is itself a spectroscopic binary system, consisting of two main sequence blue-white stars of spectral type B9V that are themselves estimated to be 2.5 and 1.9 times as massive as the Sun.
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Nightly Observing Program. Most of the above images were taken as
the Overnight Telescope Observing Program. For more information on this unique experience please visit Overnight Telescope Observing Program.
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