Kitt Peak Nightly Observing Program
Splendors of the Universe on YOUR Night!
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Copernicus is a large, conspicuous crater located in the Oceanus Procellarum (Ocean of Storms). It has extensive rays of ejecta spanning hundreds of kilometers from the rim of the crater. This crater is likely to be only hundreds of millions of years old—young for a lunar crater.
Gassendi is a large, 110 km wide, easy to recognize crater on the northern rim of the Mare Humorum. Gassendi and smaller crater Gassendi A together form a sort of ring-with-gemstone shape, making it easy to pick out the pair amongst all the other craters in the SW quadrant of the Moon. The floor of Gassendi is not very deep, and heavily fractured. Its central peaks are easy to see.
Because of its very smooth, dark floor, Plato is a very distinct crater, seen just north of Mare Imbrium. Plato is 101 km across, and the peaks of the rim rise 2,000 meters above the floor.
Proclus is a very bright crater just west of Mare Crisium. Its bright rays radiate in mostly 3 directions. To its west is Palus Somni—the Marsh of Sleep.
Tycho is a prominent crater on the Moon—but it doesn’t stand out because of its size. At 85 km in diameter it is one of thousands of craters on the Moon its size and larger. Tycho stands out because of its rays. Crater rays are formed by ejecta—dust and debris ejected from the surface during and impact event, that spreads upwards and outwards, and eventually settles back down on the surface to leave behind radial spikes around newly formed craters. Prominent and extensive rays suggest that a crater is fresher, or more recently formed. Tycho may be as young as 108 million years old. That may sound old, but craters on the Moon can remain for billions of years.
Although we cannot see any of the materials left behind at the Apollo 11 landing site, we can still look at the spot on the Moon where the mission touched down and know, that humans first walked on the Moon in that location. There are a few images of the Apollo landing sites taken by NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Apollo 11 landed in Mare Tranquilitatis, also known as the Sea of Tranquility. The landing site is known as Tranquility Base.
Mare Crisium is distinctly seperated from all of the other maria on the near side of the Moon, making it easy to distinguish. This round feature on the Moon is nearing the eastern limb, and so, is severly foreshortened—meaning, we are not looking at it straigh on, but at an angle.
The mountain range Montes Alpes is one of the prominent mountain ranges along the eastern border of Mare Imbrium. The range is named for the Alps on Earth, and the peak Mons Blanc is named for the tallest peak in the Alps of Earth—though Mons Blanc is actually the 3rd tallest peak of the Lunar Alpes. The range culminates to the south in the Promontorium Agassiz. To the north, the range terminates just shy of dark-floored crater Plato.
This is the largest sinuous rille on the Moon. It is about 3 km wide at its western end, and widens up to 6 km toward the eastern end, where you will find the Cobra Head. The Cobra Head is a steep volcanic depression near the top of a mountaid at the end of the snake-like sinuous rille. Shcröter’s Valley may have been a major source of the lava that formed the Oceanus Procellarum.Schröter’s Valley is part of the Aristarchus Plateau, and is foundto the immediate northwest of the small, but very bright crater Aristarchus.
Vallis Alpes is a wide, 180 km long valley. It’s western end is in the Montes Alpes at the northeastern edge of the Mare Imbrium, and its western end terminates at the edge of the northern Mare Frigoris. This split in the lunar crust probably formed in response to the impact that created the Imbrium Basin. At the floor of the Alpine Valley is a long rille from which lava once erupted.
Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System, a “gas giant” 11 Earth-diameters across. Its atmosphere contains the Great Red Spot, a long-lived storm 2-3 times the size of the Earth. The 4 large Galilean satellites and at least 63 smaller moons orbit Jupiter.
And Lorelei!! Your Telescope Operators and Guides. Thank you for joining us this evening! See you soon!!
The web page for the program in which you just participated is at
Nightly Observing Program. Most of the above images were taken as
the Overnight Telescope Observing Program. For more information on this unique experience please visit Overnight Telescope Observing Program.
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