Kitt Peak Night of the Marvelous Moon
Splendors of the Universe on YOUR Night!
Many pictures are links to larger versions.
Click here for the “Best images of the OTOP” Gallery and more information.
Aristarchus and Herodotus
Aristarchus is not a particularly large crater, but it manages to stand out as an extremely bright crater. Near the northwestern limb of the Moon, Aristarchus is more reflective than the darker Oceanus Procellarum surrounding it. Nearby crater Herodotus is similar in size, but different in appearance. Herodotus is shallower and darker.
Copernicus is a large, conspicuous crater located in the Oceanus Procellarum (Ocean of Storms). It has extensive rays of ejecta spanning hundreds of kilometers from the rim of the crater. This crater is likely to be only hundreds of millions of years old—young for a lunar crater.
Because of its very smooth, dark floor, Plato is a very distinct crater, seen just north of Mare Imbrium. Plato is 101 km across, and the peaks of the rim rise 2,000 meters above the floor.
Schickard is one of the largest craters on the near side of the Moon. Near the southwestern limb of the Moon, it appears elongated due to foreshortening. The floor of Schickard varies in brightness, with a large bright patch in the center of the crater. It is thought that Schickard was first flooded with mare lavas, which look dark, and then the Orientale Basin impact event showered bright Highlands material onto parts of its floor, along with many small secondary craters.
Although we cannot see any of the materials left behind at the Apollo 11 landing site, we can still look at the spot on the Moon where the mission touched down and know, that humans first walked on the Moon in that location. There are a few images of the Apollo landing sites taken by NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Apollo 11 landed in Mare Tranquilitatis, also known as the Sea of Tranquility. The landing site is known as Tranquility Base.
Jupiter and the Galilean Moons
Jupiter is the largest and most massive planet in our Solar System. All of the other planets combined would not have as much mass as Jupiter. In even a small telescope, some of Jupiter’s stripes can be seen. Jupiter’s darker stripes are known as bands, and its lighter stripes are known as zones. Swirling storms appear as spots—sometimes visible through telescopes. Jupiter’s famous Great Red Spot is generally visible when its on the side of Jupiter facing toward Earth.
Jupiter’s four largest moons are known as the Galilean Moons, named for Galileo, who was the first astronomer to study them in depth and determine that they were orbiting Jupiter. Their individual names are Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto—in orbital order from closest to Jupiter to furthest out. Ganymede is the largest of these four moons, and is the largest moon in our Solar System. Io, the closest of these four moons to Jupiter, is the most volcanic world in our Solar System. Io is home to hundreds of active volcanos. Its neighbor, and the next furthest from Jupiter of the four, Europa, is a dramatic contrast to Io with its icy surface. Europa is covered by water, which is frozen solid at the surface. The furthest our of the four, Callisto is a fascinating world in our Solar System because it is so utterly geologically dead. Without weather, moonquakes, volcanism, or any other surface-altering processes, Callisto’s surface is billions of years old—a kind of record of the history of the Solar System.
Also known as a twilight zone, a terminator is where the shadow of night and the light of day come to meet on a planetary body. At the edge of where the Sun’s light reaches, the terminator is constantly moving as the Moon rotates. When observing the Moon, many features are best observed when they are near the terminator, where shadows are long and plentiful. The shadows provide higher contrast between surface features.
This is the largest sinuous rille on the Moon. It is about 3 km wide at its western end, and widens up to 6 km toward the eastern end, where you will find the Cobra Head. The Cobra Head is a steep volcanic depression near the top of a mountaid at the end of the snake-like sinuous rille. Shcröter’s Valley may have been a major source of the lava that formed the Oceanus Procellarum.Schröter’s Valley is part of the Aristarchus Plateau, and is foundto the immediate northwest of the small, but very bright crater Aristarchus.
M31 Andromeda Galaxy
The Andromeda Galaxy is our nearest major galactic neighbor. It is a spiral galaxy 2,500,000 light-years away, and has a diameter of 220,000 light-years. This galaxy contains as much material as 1.5 trillion suns.
M13 Hercules Globular
M13, the “Great Globular Cluster in Hercules” was first discovered by Edmund Halley in 1714, and later catalogued by Charles Messier in 1764. It contains 300,000 stars, and is 22,000 light-years away. Light would need over a century to traverse its diameter.
Your Telescope Operator and Guide. Thank you for joining me this evening! See you soon!!
The web page for the program in which you just participated is at
Nightly Observing Program. Most of the above images were taken as
the Overnight Telescope Observing Program. For more information on this unique experience please visit Overnight Telescope Observing Program.
Copyright © 2019 Kitt Peak Visitor Center