Kitt Peak Nightly Observing Program
Splendors of the Universe on YOUR Night!
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Bullialdus is a pristine complex crater, with terraced walls and a central peak. At 61 km in diameter, it is not especially large, but it is one of the largest and deepest craters in the smooth Mare Nubium.
Copernicus is a large, conspicuous crater located in the Oceanus Procellarum (Ocean of Storms). It has extensive rays of ejecta spanning hundreds of kilometers from the rim of the crater. This crater is likely to be only hundreds of millions of years old—young for a lunar crater.
Because of its very smooth, dark floor, Plato is a very distinct crater, seen just north of Mare Imbrium. Plato is 101 km across, and the peaks of the rim rise 2,000 meters above the floor.
North of the crater Hortensius, in the Mare Insularum, are 6 small, smooth volcanic domes. Most have a volcanic crater on top.
Mare Crisium is distinctly seperated from all of the other maria on the near side of the Moon, making it easy to distinguish. This round feature on the Moon is nearing the eastern limb, and so, is severly foreshortened—meaning, we are not looking at it straigh on, but at an angle.
Mare Humorum is one of the smaller mare on the near side of the Moon. It is situated on the western hemisphere, south of Oceanus Procellarum. It is estimated to be about 3.9 billion years old, and is the site of one fo the Moon’s mascons. Mascons, short for mass concentrations) have slightly higher gravity than the are around them. Mare Humorum has some striking ridges and rilles. A prominant crater, Gassendi interupts the northern “coast” of Mare Humorum—its floor cracked with many rilles. Yet another, smaller crater interupts Gassendi’s northern rim—creating a memorable figure of a ring with gemstone.
The Mare Imbrium Impact Basin formed when a large object crashed into the Moon 3.9 billion years ago. subsurface lava rose to flood the giant crater, eventually solidifying into a younger, smoother terrain. Prominent features of Mare Imbrium include the crater Plato to the north, with a dark crater floor; Sinus Iridum (meaning Bay of Rainbows) to the northwest, with the Montes Jura mountain range forming a distinct C-shaped knob on the edge of the mare; and the 3 mountain ranges—Montes Alpes, Caucasus, and Apenninus—that mark the eastern edge of the mare.
Palus Epidemiarum—the Marsh of Epidemics is a small mare basin the lies in bewteen and slightly south of Maria Humorum and Nubium. In Palus Epidemiarum, you can spot the Ramsden system of Rimae, as well as a peculiar and rare double walled crater called Marth.
Also known as a twilight zone, a terminator is where the shadow of night and the light of day come to meet on a planetary body. At the edge of where the Sun’s light reaches, the terminator is constantly moving as the Moon rotates. When observing the Moon, many features are best observed when they are near the terminator, where shadows are long and plentiful. The shadows provide higher contrast between surface features.
The mountain range Montes Alpes is one of the prominent mountain ranges along the eastern border of Mare Imbrium. The range is named for the Alps on Earth, and the peak Mons Blanc is named for the tallest peak in the Alps of Earth—though Mons Blanc is actually the 3rd tallest peak of the Lunar Alpes. The range culminates to the south in the Promontorium Agassiz. To the north, the range terminates just shy of dark-floored crater Plato.
The Montes Apenninus, named for the Apennine Mountains in Italy, is a mountain range along the southeastern rim of the Mare Imbrium Impact basin (Sea of Showers). The Montes Apenninus contain some of the tallest mountains on the Near Side of the Moon.
The Montes Carpatus form part of the southern rim of the Mare Imbrium (Sea of Showers). To their south is the famous crater Copernicus.
On the eastern bank of the Mare Humorum lie a trio a satisfyingly concentric rilles.
Vallis Alpes is a wide, 180 km long valley. It’s western end is in the Montes Alpes at the northeastern edge of the Mare Imbrium, and its western end terminates at the edge of the northern Mare Frigoris. This split in the lunar crust probably formed in response to the impact that created the Imbrium Basin. At the floor of the Alpine Valley is a long rille from which lava once erupted.
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Nightly Observing Program. Most of the above images were taken as
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